Removing boxes of honey
Obviously, before you can begin processing your honey, you'll have to get it off of the hive and away from the bees. It's important to remember that your bees are likely to be their most defensive at harvest time, since "stealing" their honey gives them good reason for being that way. Be sure to gear up fully and get that smoker lit really well before heading out to the hives.
The first thing you'll need to do is get those thousands of bees out of the boxes that you want to take; and for that you'll use your bee escape board. Install the bee escape board around the noon hour on a nice day and be sure that the forecast calls for nice weather the following day as well, since you'll finish removing the honey 24 hours later.
If you need only to remove modified Warré hive bodies or sections boxes, the process is fairly simple since you rarely encounter any box-to-box attachments. Begin by smoking the bees through the hive entrance and/or the screened bottom. Smoke them only enough to get their attention; one or two puffs is plenty. You don't want to drive the bees up into the top of the hive. Next, remove the roof and quilt from the top of the hive, pull the window screen back slightly at one end of the top bars, and blow a few puffs of smoke down into the top box. It's not necessary to remove the window screen at this time. Next, use your hive tool to break the propolis seal and remove the top hive body from the hive. Set the box on its side (with the combs always vertical) on the ground, a piece of wood, a log, etc., and check the combs for brood. There cannot be any brood in any box that is to be harvested. What you want to see is only capped honey at the bottom of every frame. If necessary, use your smoker to drive the bees into the box a little, so that you're able to see at least one inch of cells on the bottom of every comb. Caps over brood look like a paper bag and appear very different from capped honey. If you think you see capped brood, possible uncapped brood or empty cells, either reassemble the hive and wait a couple more weeks to try harvesting again, or remove the frame(s) in question to get a closer look. If only one or two frames contain brood, you may be able to swap with one or two frames of honey from the box below. If you find there is only capped honey in the upper box, proceed by removing the next box from the hive and inspecting it in the same manner. You can harvest any and all boxes from the top of the hive that do not contain any brood, as long as the bees are left to winter in at least two fully drawn boxes of comb, with the upper of the two being full of honey.
Once you have determined which boxes to harvest, simply place your bee escape board on top of the hive with the screen facing down. Then, place the boxes to be harvested on top of the bee escape board. Be sure to stack them so that they are back in their original positions and then reinstall the quilt and roof. Once the hive is back together, you're done for the day.
The procedure for removing standard (top bar) hive bodies is similar to that of removing framed hive bodies. That is, you remove and inspect each box and install the bee escape board under the boxes that you want to harvest. But because top bar hive bodies do not have frames, and therefore have no bottom bars to which the bees can attach the bottoms of their combs, box-to-box attachments occur fairly frequently. This means that bees will sometimes attach the combs from upper boxes to the tops of the top bars in the boxes below, which has one very big advantage. The attachments allow the bees to easily move from the lower hive body to the upper hive body in the winter months without breaking cluster, often preventing bees from starving to death in the lower hive body as they might when the distance from the combs below to the combs above is too great. When box-to-box attachments exist, the distance from the combs below to the combs above is only one centimeter, allowing the bees to migrate easily. But, for this advantage there is a trade-off. Box-to-box attachments require the bee keeper to do a bit more planning and work when removing honey. Planning is key. If you are prepared for the worst-case scenario before you start removing boxes, you'll find that things go quite easily.
The first thing you should do is set either a small piece of plywood or cardboard next to the hive for setting the removed hive bodies on. This is because if box-to-box attachments do exist, honey will drip from the combs when a hive body is removed and it's best if you don't leave any honey on the ground near the hive as that could easily lead to robbing. Speaking of robbing; since you will be opening the hive and releasing the smell of honey to the outside, you need to reduce the entrance way down (to 1/2 inch or so) before you start, and leave it that way for at least a few days afterward (if nectar is done flowing for the season, you can leave the entrance reduced until the following year). If you have multiple hives, reduce all of the entrances before you start harvesting any honey. Also, be sure to take a coffee container with a lid out to the hive with you, which is a good practice to adopt for anytime you open any hive.
Box-to-box comb attachments may be significant, minimal, or they may not exist at all. It depends on a lot of factors and you never can be sure what you'll find. Most often you will find that minimal attachments have been made. Significant attachments happen most frequently when top bar hive bodies are used as supers, because in that situation the bees will often build combs from the bottom up. It is for this reason that we recommend using either modified hive bodies with foundation or sections boxes when supering your hive. If you use modified hive bodies without foundation, the bees will often build the combs upward from the bottom bars of the frames, which can also lead to problems. Now, with all of that said, we sometimes use standard hive bodies as supers, and this is how we remove them:
First, smoke the bees and remove the roof and quilt as previously described. Pull back the window screen at one end of the top bars and smoke down into the super. At his time, look carefully into the super to verify that it is full and that the top bars all have comb attached to them. If so, proceed with removal. If not, consider whether or not there is still nectar available to the bees and decide to either wait and see if they finish filling the box, or to remove it as-is.
Obviously, any box-to-box connections that exist will need to be severed. There are two means of achieving this; either by breaking the connections or by cutting them. Both methods have their pros and cons. The advantage to breaking them apart is that there is very little risk of killing bees, with the disadvantage being that the breaks are not always very clean. Cutting them apart makes a nice, clean disconnect; but may kill several bees in the process. The worst-case scenario when cutting the boxes apart is that the queen is killed, but as long as you are smoking each box from the top before cutting, this risk is minimal as the queen will most likely move to the bottom of the hive. Another thing to consider before using the cutting method is that if the propolis has turned brittle, rather than being soft and gooey, cutting the boxes apart may be quite difficult. As for me, I usually just break them apart.
In order to cut the boxes apart, you'll need to make a special tool. Use a 22-gauge wire and tie a handle to each end. The total length from handle to handle should be about 18 inches. If the cutting is done in warmer weather, the propolis between the boxes will be soft and easier to cut. The most important thing to remember when cutting, is that the wire needs to be pulled through the hive, in between the boxes, while being perpendicular to the top bars. This way, the bees have the time and space that they need to get out of the way before being cut in half by the wire. If you cut with the wire parallel to the top bars, you will be cutting bees in half every time you pass over a top bar! Also, if necessary, use your body to brace the hive while you are pulling the wire through so that you don't pull it over! When the string has been pulled through to within 1/2 inch of the wall closest to you...stop. Pulling it out the other side will probably kill a lot of bees for no good reason, so simply leave the string where it is. Then, remove the hive body and proceed with inspecting for brood and installing the bee escape board if no brood is found.
Breaking the connections is done by simply prying the box loose with a hive tool and lifting it off of the hive. Once you've begun to pry the box up, don't let it drop back into place or you will be crushing bees! Once the hive body is set aside on the piece of cardboard or plywood, smoke the bees away from any sections of comb that are left on the top bars of the box below and use your hive tool to quickly scrape the larger pieces off of the bars and then place them into your coffee container. If there are stubborn bees that just won't leave the dripping comb, simply put them into the coffee container as well. The loss of a few bees is inconsequential and you'll only have trouble if you insist on trying to save them. Besides, once you are away from the hive you may be able to remove the lid from the container and let them clean themselves off and fly away. Once you have the top bars reasonably cleaned off (don't sweat the small stuff right now), proceed with inspecting the removed box for brood. Remember to use your smoker, if necessary, to get the bees out of your way so that you can get a good look at the cells at the bottom of each comb. Caps over brood look like a paper bag and appear very different from capped honey. Empty cells indicate possible uncapped brood or honey and that more time is needed for the bees to finish their work. If the box contains only capped honey, install the bee escape board and put the hive back together. Once the hive is back together, you're done for the day.
Return in 24 hours to remove the honey. Do not wait any longer. Waiting longer will not only not ensure that all of the bees will be out, but is likely to give the bees the time to figure out how to travel backward through the bee escape board and back up into the box(es) that you want to remove. Smoke the bees through the entrance and/or screened bottom before removing the roof and quilt from the hive. As long as the boxes that you want to remove don't contain brood, you will find that the vast majority of bees have left the boxes and you can remove them. You will also find that any honey that had been spilled or was still dripping after you installed the bee escape board will now be completely cleaned up by the bees.
Once you are ready to remove the honey and carry it away, you'll need to work and move as quickly as possible. If you're working alone, remove one box at a time. After removing a box of honey, set the quilt back on the hive and high-tail it out of there with your honey.
IMPORTANT: Do not remove the bee escape board until all of the honey, whether that be one box, two, three, whatever; has been taken away and stored where no bees can get to it! Removing the bee escape board will release thousands of bees that will follow you!
Most of you will be processing the honey in your kitchen, so each time you bring a box of honey up to the house, work near a door to the house and use either a leaf blower or a blowgun connected to an air compressor, to blow any remaining bees from the box. If you're going to use the latter, using an "OSHA approved" blowgun will help to prevent damaging the combs. Once you've blown out what appears to be all of the remaining bees, quickly take the box into the house. There are bound to be a few bees still hiding in the box when you go inside. Don't worry about it. Simply place the box near a window. As any remaining bees exit the box with their belly-full of honey and are wanting to go home, they'll gather on the window. Once they're all gathered there, open the window and remove the screen to let them out.
Once all of the boxes of honey are safe and sound, remove the bee escape board from the hive, shake the bees out of it, finish cleaning off the top bars and put the hive back together. It's now time to begin processing your honey!